Muscular Dystrophy DMD is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness that occurs primarily in boys, affecting approximately 1 in 3500 male births worldwide. It is an inherited disorder which is caused by a mutation (alteration) in a gene, called the DMD gene. People with DMD have progressive loss of muscle function, which results in weakness in the lower limbs. Boys with DMD do not make the dystrophin protein in their muscles.
- The symptoms of Muscular Dystrophy DMD may appear as early as infancy or during the first 6 years of the child’s birth. Usually, the first noticeable symptom is delay in learning to sit and stand independently. The average age for walking in children with DMD is 18 months. The excessive loss of muscle mass leads to a progressive muscle weakness in the legs and pelvic causing a wobbling style of walking and trouble in climbing stairs. Muscle weakness also occurs in the neck, arms, back and other areas.
- The calf muscles in the lower half of the body initially enlarge but the muscle tissue is eventually replaced with fat and connective tissue. It gives rise to muscle contractures in the legs, making it unusable because fibrosis occurs in connective tissue. Occasionally, the individual also feels pain in the calves and the muscle strength in the boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years decreases steadily. Some might even require braces to walk by the time they turn 10 and by age 12, most are confined to a wheelchair. The bones in the rest of the body start to develop abnormally, causing skeletal deformities of the spine and other areas.
- Skeletal deformities and muscular weakness often lead to breathing disorders. Cardiomyopathy (heart enlargement) occurs in almost all the cases, beginning in the early teens and sometimes even after the age of 18 years. There are very few individuals with DMD who have lived beyond their 30s. Cardiomyopathy and breathing complications are the common causes of death.
Muscular Dystrophy DMD is diagnosed in most children when they’re about 3-5 years old and when it becomes apparent that their physical abilities are not in sync with the normal course of development.
- Symptoms of DMD can easily be detected during a physical exam.
- For a more thorough test, blood samples can be analyzed to check levels of creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme that leaks out of damaged muscle, indicating that the muscle tissue is being destroyed.
- Genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis in many cases of MD. However, MD has many different forms, so if your child does not have one of the more common types, a muscle biopsy may be needed.
- Muscle biopsy, which constitutes taking a small sample of muscle tissue and its examination under a microscope. This may be important as the diagnostic tool for less common MDs.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), a test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows arrhythmias or dysrhythmias (abnormal rhythms) and detects any damage to the heart muscle.
There is no current cure for DMD. The treatment is aimed at controlling the inception of symptoms to maximize the quality of life, and include the following:
- Corticosteroids increase energy and strength and defer severity of some symptoms.
- Mild, non-jarring physical activity such as swimming is encouraged. Inactivity (such as bed rest) can deteriorate the health.
- Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength, flexibility and function is encouraged.
- Appropriate respiratory support as it is a progressive disease.
- Surgical remedies can loosen joints drawn inward by contractors.
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Several clinical trials are going on all over the world, including India using to help patients suffering from DMD lead a normal life.
- Stem Cell India Research Centre can offer you stem cell therapy using our proprietary technology.
- These stem cells could be of various types viz. Hematopoietic (CD 34+), Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are processed and isolated using Good Manufacturing (GMP) and Good Lab Practices (GLP) and in accordance with AABB standards.
- This novel therapy is based on a natural human protein that can significantly slow the muscle damage and improve its functions.
- We are confident that using stem cell therapy, we can help the patient not only to reverse the disease process of the affected body part but also improve the overall quality of life.
- Stem cells produced by Stem Cell India Research Centre are completely non-toxic, safe, easy to administer with an excellent probability of homing and engraftment with parent cell, tissue or organ. Our researchers and scientists work exhaustively to design accurate treatment protocols that have the capability to yield excellent results.
- Depending upon the requirement on the patient, the stem cells can be procured from bone marrow or cord blood fat.
- Stem Cell India Research Centre advises an early treatment to prevent rapid deterioration of strength in muscles. The stem cell therapy also helps avoid patient’s dependence on support for walking & other activities.